Therapies around the world...

Cell replacement therapy is moving forward in several groups around the world.

It's important to realize that dopamine neurons are transplanted for all of these therapies.


Pluripotent stem cells are capable of becoming all sorts of cell types. Pluripotent stem cells are not transplanted until after they are differentiated (developed) into dopamine-producing neurons in the lab. Different projects use different sources of pluripotent stem cells. See below...

Dopamine Neurons

Jeanne Loring in San Diego, CA is working with iPSC-sourced autologous dopamine neurons. Dr. Loring is the only researcher who is making autologous dopamine neurons for each patient. These DNA-matching dopamine neurons won't require immunosuppression.

Dr. Bratt-Leal, Vice-President of Research & Development, Aspen Neuroscience; Summit Scientific Adviser